Horse-breeding in the Tambov Area

Applicant: Irina Nikitina, the pupil of the 11 B form CG

Supervisors: L.I. Ivina, the teacher of Biology

L.N. Kozhevnikova, the teacher of English

Tambov 1998

Historically Tambov area has been known as the territory of chanters.

By the amount of private stud farms it challenged superiority of Voronezh,

Oryol and Kursk areas. The development of horse breeding in many respects

was promoted by two circumstances. First because of the flood plains, where

the herds freely grazed (only in one Morshansk area today are left about 20

thousands hectares even after rash ploughing up of a large part of flood

plains). Secondly, and it is also important, the deep pocket of the Tambov

landowners. They had large and sometimes fabulous capitals. So, one of

brothers Archarovs, the holder of extensive lands in Rasskasovo area,

bestowed him by Katherine , handed the whole horse regiment to the Tambov

national militia in 1812, by putting on the horses his own bonded recruits.

He also gave regimentals, armed and supplied the regiment with provisions

for three months. Nobody in Russia made such generous gift for army that

time.

Count Stroganov, princess Golitsina, general Lanskoy (the second

husband of Natalya Goncharova), Bashmakov - the Tambov millionaire and

holder of gold mines beyond Urals, old-line noblemen the Naryshkins, the

Arapovs and many other had their own stud farms in Tambov area. The

Lavrovsky stud farm, which nowadays has worldwide glory, was built in

Tambov land by the landowner Voeykov.

The merchantry tried not to drop behind from the aristocracy. One

of the Aseevs brothers, the holder of Arzhenka cloth factory, has

purchased the stud farm from a widow of the local broken landowner

Kruchenkov. The example of Aseev, but without the raping, was followed also

by other industrial aces from the districts of the region. It was

considered very prestigiously.

We should remember that horse-breeding remained one of the few

worthy commercial activities for the aristocrats. In 1840, when Chicherin,

the relative of our future Minister for Foreign Affairs, has opened

distillery in Lyada and the landowners Tulinov and Poltoratsky have

purchased cloth factories, noble society has apprehended it as mauvais ton.

But the pinces and dukes and members of the tsarist family very well

descended to trading horses from theirs stud farms.

All reading Russia knew from the story by Turgenev about

inveterate chanters from the district city of Tambov region with a

beautiful name - Lebedyan. But only few know today, that the fans of

equitation created there the first Russian association and issued first

horseracing journal. Much earlier than in metropolis and Moscow, the prize-

winning horserace of Oryol trotters were arranged in Lebedyan. Several

years later the same association of equitation fans was also established in

Tambov. This association built on share contributions the three-storey

building for its club on former Dvortsovaya, nowadays Sovietskaya Street,

one of first in the center of our city (now The Department of

Communications). In this club the horse-breeders from all Tambov districts

met at card tables and in the hall of extensive library.

The special page in a history of domestic horse-breeding were

written by the life copers brothers Demins from Kozlov. They managed to

get and turn over the blooded trotters even from Khrenov farm of count

Aleksey Orlov. Although, only after his death. While alive the count

strictly forbade selling his horses. Demins were in close friendship with

former counts adscript Vasiliy Ivanovich Shishkin, the manager of Khrenov

farm. Shortly Shishkin opened his own stud farm.

The abundance of private stud farms in the region produced big

horse fairs, beginning from Lebedyanskaya and finishing with Tokaryovskaya,

one of cheapest in country. On Tambov fairs the merchants came a long way

from European countries, and also from Persia and Turkey. Only in 1897 61

580 horses were exported from Russia. Each tenth of them was purchased in

Tambov region. On fairs they sold not only separate horses, mainly it was

the business of small copers, the owners of stud farms sold the young

grossly, by so-called stakes after one famous stallion and different dams.

Unblooded horses on Tambov fairs were bought up for meat merchants from

Denmark. A kilo of horsemeat was equal in cost with a kilo of Danish

butter. Vneshtorg knows the price that the danish horsemeat lovers, the

horsemeat is the irreplaceable ingredient of top-grade sausage, are ready

to pay us for horses for meat.

Many brilliant trotters were grown up on Tambov stud farms. In

1904 at stud farm of Afanasyev in village Yaroslavka, now the territory of

Rzhaksa area was born grey stallion Krepysh. His father was Gromadniy, the

Imperial prizewinner, and the mother Koketka, the grand daughter of Varvar

prizewinner from the farm of well-known horse-breeder Rogov. Changing

hands, Krepysh in a 1907 stepped on the turfs of Moscow and St. Petersburg

for the first time. By his graceful pace he made a conquest of fans.

Krepysh entered the competitions for 79 times and in 55 races he was the

first and he established or improved 13 records. With heartache thousands

of fans witnessed a loss of Krepysh in February 1912 in Moscow to the

American trotter General Age. They did not blame their favorite but his

american jockey William Keaton, who, they believed, intentionally drive

Krepysh in a wrong way.

The Novotomnikovo stud farm

The stud farm in Novotomnikovo played a large part in the

history of domestic horse-breeding; it was founded by count Illarion

Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov in 1860 and still exists now. In short time he

bought up the best orlovs stallions and dams, paying no attention to the

prices.

His new stud farm in Tambov area got famous after his bonded

jockey Oblopokhin on the stallion Zadorniy beat all capital jockeys on the

horses from the best prize-winning stables in St. Petersburg in 1861.

Zadorniy made three versts for 6 minutes and 6 seconds.

Vorontsov-Dashkov opened a new era in horseracing after he became

in 1882 a state manager of horse-breeding at tzar Alexander III request. At

that time he was the defense and domestic minister in the rank of adjutant

general.

He turned the horse-breeding from lairds merry-making into real

commerce. The prices on the private stud farms were raised up. The owners

of stud farms in Moscow or St. Petersburg could be lucky enough and win

whole bags in one racing season.

In the last quarter of 19th century in a pursuit of high prizes

the american jockeys began to appear in St. Petersburg and Moscow more and

more often on theirs so-called two-minutes trotters they cover a mile

(1600 meters) for two minutes and some seconds.

One of the first to Russia from America came Claytons, the well-

known jockey family the father and sons with their own trotters. They

established the prize-winning stable and began the manufacturing of modern

very light carts with rubber wheels. Very soon they were unrivalled on the

racecourses of Moscow and St. Petersburg. One year Clayton and sons won

almost all prizes and earned more than 300,000 rubles. The horse-breeders

got agitated and began to repine. Some of them rushed to buy the very

expensive American trotters. Other protested demanding to forbid the

performance of American trotters in Russia.

In such conditions Vorontsov-Dashkov, as a head of domestic horse-

breeding, had to make a decision. He found a compromise. The prizes were

divided into two groups. One was for the horses of all breeds, other only

for Oryol trotters. But nevertheless, the count preferred American

trotters. The only criterion of quality of a horse I consider a prize

pole, - he told later. With such reasoning Vorontsov-Dashkov made vigorous

efforts buying American trotters, not only for his stud farm and prize-

winning stables in St. Petersburg and Moscow, but also for state stud

farms.

Vorontsov-Dashkov was interested in cross-breeding more than

anybody else. He always was present at horsing, sitting under a glass cap

at center above one of the stables. The count considered it to be so

important, that often forced his spouse Elizaveta Andreevna (Shuvalova

before marriage) to be present on it with visitors, which were in

Novotomnikovo that time. The visitors were only grand people: the members

of tzar family, which arrival was marked with planting of one more tree in

oak alley of ancient park. Such as relatives of four daughters married off

in families of Shuvalovs, Sheremetyevs, Musin-Pushkins, and Demidovs.

The conversations about horses touched common interest, as all

aristocracy had stables and stud farms. This kind of private business was

considered to be almost the only activity that is not derogating dignity of

a true aristocrat.

By the end of 19th century on private and state stud farms in

Russia there were 20 trotters prizewinners of an American origin. In the

mass order there was a crossing of blooded Oryol dams with American

trotters.

The most given was Vorontsov-Dashkov. Even two victories of

oryols over americans in summer season of 1898 didnt cool him. The

Oryol trotter Boets broke the record on three miles established by American

trotter Monnet. His own mare Krylataya broke the record of Monnet on three

and three quarters of second in the same season. But he had made the

choice, his knight's move , and was not going to back up. Soon the count

accepted on a service all jockeys of Claytons family with the fantastic

salary 300 thousands rubles per year.

The outstanding scientist hippologist prince Sergei Urusov engaged in

controversy against Vorontsov-Dashkov. Urusov considered cross-breeding as

a medicine not by illness. The only developing of ability to quick trot,

as they have made with the trotter in America, - he wrote, - will result in

quick but narrow, boneless, long-legged horse without rib and quite often

without a back and completely useless in agriculture. It is necessary to

improve inside the breed. Bad can be born even from good but never good

from bad .

Many years have passed since then and this dispute has not

finished yet.

After the death of the count Vorontsov-Dashkov in 1916 his heirs,

going to leave the country, arranged cut-price sale of all horses elite of

the farm. In Soviet time it became only a branch of state stud farm in

Morshansk.

By 1918 in Novotomnikovo left only three blooded mares of Oryol

breed. Horses were taken from stables both by red and white. The very

nice farm before now it fell to desolation and, as the saying goes, the

farm was going. For long time it was existing only as horsing point, on

which only a dozen of mares were blissomed per year.

By a lucky chance among the three left blooded Oryol dams there

was the young mare Opora. Later she was bound to play the outstanding role

in domestic horse-breeding and to save the breed of Oryol trotters from

complete oblivion. In a 1934 she gave birth to a colt named Otboy. His

father was stallion Burelom born in 1927. The Moscow scientist hippologist

S. Kalinin liked this streamlined trotter after the Moscow races in 1930

and advised to pay the special attention to him.

Meanwhile stud farms kept cross-breeding of Oryol trot horses,

what was started before the revolution. Only now they cross-breed blooded

Oryol mares not with American trotters, the state did not give money to buy

them, but with crossbreeds posterity. At first they were called american-

oryols, then just Russian trotters. They were propagated on six stud

farms, mainly on Lavrovsk farm in our region.

The big work was performing continuously on creating and developing of

that new breed of thrifty trotters. The care for Oryol trotters was paled

into insignificance. The majority of the experts believed that this breed

had reached the limits of the further perfection. And, as it turned out,

they were wrong.

Today in stalls of Novotomnikovo stud farm stay the good-lookers

of Oryol breed restored by the efforts of horse-breeding enthusiasts. The

farm fosterlings have reached friskiness, which once was considered

possible only for American trotters. Now the Russian troyka, made from

Oryol trotters revives abroad as the mode. The customers from abroad

readily buy them in Novotomnikovo.

One cannot name the work on cross-breeding of Oryol trotter with

American one as reckless step. If due to Oryol trotter Russia gained the

improved breed of working horses in place of bow-backed hacks with bangled

stomachs, then the cross-breeding of Oryol horse gave the new breed of

Russian trotter of distinct sportish type.

There is no other animal like horse the mankind is so indebted

to. Without the count Aleksei Orlov we would not have Oryol trotters, which

bring glory to Russia for many years, making an ornament to our nation. We

would not receive a trotter, which is used for breed improvement of

trotting horses almost in all countries of Western Europe, and also in Asia

and America.

For the revirescence of beautiful Oryol trotter we are obliged to

S. Kasimenko. It was him, who managed the farm and choose the dams for

Burelom. In such selection the ancestry of dams is very important, down to

their great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers and even deeper into a

family tree. All their features and qualities are taken into account. All

was clear with Burelom, the son of distinguished Oryol trotter Lovchiy.

Maternally his bloodline ascended to the famous stallion Zadorniy, who

brought the first glory to Novotomnikovo farm of Vorontsov-Dashkov. But the

mare Opora, born even before October revolution, was in declining years for

horses and seemed to be not a suitable bride for young beauty Burelom.

However Kasimenko took chances. As we mentioned, stallion Otboy was born

from this unequal march. The careful godfather to him became A. Samoilov,

who replaced Kasimenko in a 1934.

At first Otboy didnt show anything special in posterity. They

have from him just common trotters and dams not distinguished by high

friskiness, only their exterior was faultless.

The farm decided to part with Otboy. He was sent to other stud

farm. And here we should say thanks to A. Popov, who was the head of horse

department during the Great Patriotic War. Popov decided to return Otboy in

Novotomnikovo. But the new head V. Remizov received him there. Popov went

to the front in 1943 and did not come back on farm, as well as other 36

workers of farm - hostlers, jockeys, foragers, tractor operators, smiths

didnt return here after war.

Remizov had been working in Novotomnikovo till 1965, and in his

time a new line in breed of Oryol trotter was born and appeared the new

branch on his family tree. The grey colt Otklik came into being after Otboy

and mare Konventsiya on Zaporozhye stud farm in 1952. Konventsiya had

arrived on this farm from Novotomnikovo already pregnant. So all palms for

a new line of Oryol trotter belong to the stud farm in Novotomnikovo.

The posterity of Otklik appeared to be marvelously quick. The

stallions Vodovorot and Borets ran a mile for two minutes and four tenths

of a second.

The interest to Oryol trotter has revived today all over the world.

Horses from Novotomnikovo have purchased the stud farms of Czechoslovakia,

Hungary, China, Germany, and Sweden. All America and Canada have got

acquainted with troika of Oryol trotters, where the thiller was a trotter

from Novotomnikovo farm. The millions of televiewers in these countries

admired them. Many newspapers of Old and New World enthusiastically wrote

about them.

The Lavrovo stud farm

The Lavrovo stud farm is located in Mordovian area of Tambov

region and stands out against other trotting stud farms because of the

achievements of its fosterlings.

Established by the good judge of horses V.P. Voeykov 170 years

ago, the Lavrovo stud farm is one of big fishes of domestic trotters. Ii

is the birthplace of the well-known grey Oryol trotter Lebed 5.44 (Atlasniy

- Pobeda), born in1829. He is on the pictures of the artist N.G. Sverchkov

and on the tapestry made by bondmaids from village Lavrovo. These things

are kept in the museum of horse-breeding of TAA.

Till the end of 80-th the farm in Lavrovo kept the path of cross-

breeding.

During the civil war the facilities were ruined, the horses were

plundered. They could save only one mare Margaritka 2.16,1 (Fatalist -

Binyonia), born in 1918, who later became a founder of dams family and was

the great-grandmother of Pervenets 2.00,4. During the acquisition of the

farm (1922-23) not only Oryol-Americans got there, but also the Oryol

trotters.

Since 1930 all Oryol dams were excluded from Lavrovo stud farm.

Together with mares half-breeds, which were brought on farm instead of

Oryol mares, also came the studhorse Aloisha 2.14,2 (Aloisha - Kreolka)

from the line of Peter The Great. There was started the line of Aloisha and

the line of Trepet together with Smolensk farm. In January 1935 from

Aloisha and mare Paguba (the grand daughter of Peter The Great) appeared

the red stallion Podarok 2.02,1; 3.09,4; 4.17.4 the pride of Lavrovo and

the founder of one progressive line in Russian trotter breed.

The important part in the stud activity of the farm also played

then the lines of Iris (through Khorovod, Khor Kalinych, Interes), Nalim

(through Lunatik and Otprysk), Aksvort (through Viktor Vorti, Vampir,

Vzriv). The main was the method of cultivation in itself of the horses of

desirable type using cross-breeding and in-breeding. The crossing with

lines of Aloisha and Gildeets had become one of the bases of Lavrovo

complex creation.

The returned cross-breeding was also applied with Oryol stallions

for the improvement of horses exterior. The Oryol lines in remote ancestors

are traced in the best horses of the farm.

Through the Oryol trotter Bunt 2.14.3 (Metsenat - Budushnost) the

lines of Podaga and blooded Boyar were enhanced. The daughters of Bunt

could be met in family trees of Vasilyok, Pervenets, Lazutchik, Pavodok,

Vopl.

All-Union prize horse and founder of the line Podarok was selfed

on Oryol trotters Zadornov and Petushok. His best get: the sons Pervenets

2.00,4, Pryatel 2.03,4, Lazutchik 2.05,6, Park 2.10,4, Vopl 2.09,2, Azot

2.06,3, Pereryv 2.07,6; 6.44,6, Lotus 2.09,9 and daughters Povilika 2.09,3

(the mother of Prologue 2.06), Aplikatsiya 2.14,7 (the mother of Atlas

2.07,6) and Atmosfera, Podarok gave with dams, who had the similar Oryol

ancestors.

Only from Podarok the farm had more than 298 colts. 20 among them

are of class 2.10 and even thriftier. The children of Podarok have won 17

international prizes: Priyatel, Pervenets and Lazutchik 5 prizes each and

Park - 2 prizes. No other stallion from our stud farms had such a

successful offspring.

The all-Union records of Podarok were broken only 13 years later

by his son from Masandra the Derby racer Pervenets 2.00,4 ; 3.11,4 ;

4.11,2 ; 6.52,3 who was born in 1949. Podarok also gave from Argentina the

all-Union prizewinner Pryatel, born in1954 and the winner Lazutchik (from

Lazur); born in1959.

On Lavrovo stud farm was brought up the all-Union prizewinner

among two-year trotters Protalinka - 2.13,1 (Lucifer - Parallel), born in

1948. The prize of Protalinka is the standard for two-year trotters.

During the period before the war on Lavrovo stud farm was created

the type of a trotter distinguished by the harnessry forms, pedigree, good

top line, depth, strong dry limbs but which is a little craggy.

The hybridists of the farm were constantly selecting by the type

and friskiness.

The big job of creating the famous trotters on Lavrovo farm was

made by zootechnicians Y.N. Sarantsev (1920-1934), A.K. Brinken (the author

of selection, which gave Podarok), V.N. Zhardetskiy, K.V. Voskresenskiy,

R.I. Kalinin, who had been working here for 14 years and was one of the

founders of line of Podarok. Also he was the author of the farm plan of

line breeding in 1976-1975. On the racecourses the trotters of Lavrovo stud

farm were driven to the victories by such jockeys as A.V. Zotov, A.A.

Sorokin, N.R. Semichev, M.G. Chudnenko, V.T. Novikov, A.P. Kreydin, V.Y.

Kochetkov.

To its 150-year jubilee the farm had 5 Derby trotters. These are

Pobeditel 2.11,7, Vecher 2.06,7, Arzamas 2.06,4, Pervenets 2.00,4, Albom

2.03,9. In 1965 by the number of 2.10 class trotters the Lavrovo stud farm

was on the fourth in the country, and on the second place in class 2.05.

The first was the stud farm in Dubrovskiy.

However, the period of success was followed by the long period of

decline. Mainly it could be explained by the fact, that the group of

studhorses didnt have the appropriate stallions. Otprysk 2.09,3, Zheton

2.09,7, Zabiyaka 2.09 could not give a class horse in 60-es. And also the

technology of breeding was inadequate. The horses were not supplied with

high-grade forages as many natural pastures and the hayfields were ploughed

up.

The new progressive stage of selection began in 1971 with the

coming of standard breed stallion Low Hanover 1.59 (Bolshoy Star's Pride

Lynd Deen). From this outstanding studhorse the farm gained 253 horses.

Among them are: Ligatura 2.04,2, Velonia 2.03,2 r, Lan 2.05 r, Ghilka 2.07,

Leeter 2.04,4 r, List 2.04,9, Vlastnyi Zhest 2.05,5, Alt 2.06, Alzhir 2.07,

Valezhnik 3.12,2 and other class trotters. Such intensive use of the

studhorse for the insemination of mares with the dilute semen deserves

attention of the horse-breeding experts.

The work with Low Hanover allowed to half-complete the dams group

of the farm with his daughters and grand daughters and improve the average

frisky parameter of dams on 3,6.

After the use of Minion 2.11 (Napor Mudraya Poslovitsa) and Low

Hanover in 60-es, the type of Lavrovo trotters was also changed. They

became more blooded and dry, lost roughness of a head, became less massive

but more vigorous and good-tempered.

The descendants of Low Hanover showed the high results in a 1983.

His great-grandson Gopak 2.04,2 (Parket - Glubokaya) had become the sixth

derby trotter of the farm when he won a Grand all-Union prize. The Low

Hanovers great-grandson Lepetun 2.07,6 (Parket - Lesostep) won a Big three-

year prize, and grandson Peak 2.03,8 (Kolchedan - Programma) became the

winner of World international prizes (in Moscow) and Villam (in Hungary)

and was the second in the Elite prize.

On January 1, 1984 195 trotters of 2.10 class and more frisky

(the third place on this parameter after the stud farms in Dubrovskoe and

Elyan) are brought up. 19 of them are of class 2.05 and friskier. The

trotters from Lavrovo won 33 international prizes.

Conditions of creation and growing up of the hippodrome cracks in the

Lavrovo stud farm.

Brood work.

The hybridists from Lavrovo had to work much to transform the

motley brood structure into a valuable heart of the breed of Russian

trotters. Half a century ago the average dams measurements in Lavrovo were

154,8-154,7-173-19 and met the requirements only of the second class. Now

there are 110 brood mares on the farm. Their measurements meet the standard

of the breed and make 159,5-162,1-183,3-19,6 cm. Average friskiness of the

main dams 2.15,2, of the horsing dams - 2.14,9. Almost all mares ranked as

Elite class. With due regard on the farm they look at the growing up of the

self-repair: the age of more than 50 % of brood horses included in

selection is less than 10 years. The duly use of young dams with high

friskiness and good measurements, allows to select mares in time, both by

the age and quality of posterity.

More than half of dams belong to the line of Volomait (through

Low Hanover and Apex Hanover), 22 mares are from the line of Podarok, 14

from the line of Trepet (through the daughters of Minion and Pavlin), 12

of Nalim (daughters of Otprysk). There are several representatives of the

lines of Gildeets and Scotland. The related to each other mares form the

groups. The hybridists from the stud farm try to save the most valuable

dams nests.

According to the selection plan the Lavrovo stud farm works with

lines of Podarok, Volomait, Aksvort, Gildeets, Scotland. The line of

Volomait was successfully developed on the farm through Kolchedan 1.58,8 r

(Low Hanover - Kaleriya), born in 1967, and also develops through Parket

2.06,2 (Prolog - Prisma), born in 1972. The posterity of Kolchedan has made

about 180 heads, including classy Peak, Lokon, Lukretsiy. Parket gave

almost 100 horses. Among them are Gopak, Lepetun, Aprel 2.08. Zalet 2.04,4

(Lazutchik - Zaletnaya) from the line of Podarok was unsuccessfully used in

5 seasons, and he is excluded from the mating plan for 1984.

The work with the line of Gildeets was performed through

Kolokolchik 2.08,6 (Konniy - Kolombina), but he also did not paid off and

work with this line was terminated.

Two falls were received from Grand 2.04,8 r (Abrikos -

Gugenotka), born in 1976; the line of Scotland. The youngsters of Grand are

blooded but had not run on hippodromes yet. In this line the hopes were set

on the all-Union prizewinner Bubnoviy 3.11,2 (Bill Hanover - Bastiliya),

born in 1977, who just began to procreate offsprings on the farm. More than

20 mares were selected for him.

Almost for 10 years the farm had been working with the line of

Nalim through Linkor 2.07,5 (Aprichnik - Lotereya), born in 1971. Though he

gave Globus from Gubka, Lakolin from Luna, his use was limited since he

transmitted to posterity the narrow underjaw. The work with this line was

continued through Kropot (Charodei - Kreolka), born in1977. In cross-

breedings with the lines of Podarok and Volomait and in remote in-breedings

with grand daughters of Lunatik for Kropot was appointed 20 mares.

The main method in selection is the selection for in-breeding,

usually moderate and occasionally - close in-breeding for the test of

studhorses and dams.

The wide use of the stallions of standard breeding is the

tendency in brood work. The big hopes were set on the use of Blesk, for who

about 30 mares were picked up. It was desirable for the farm to receive the

deeply frozen semen of standard bred Repriz and Victorious Speed.

2-3 months prior to the beginning of a horsing season The Head Of

Horse Department A. Yakimov, the veterinary by education, checked the

physiological condition of and young mares. The horsing was

conducted under the control of the follicle maturation. It saves stallions

and increases the percentage of colt fetation.

Horse feeding on the stud farm is organized properly. The sowing

of long-term grasses is enlarged thus improving the fodder base. After the

ending of horsing period the dams are constantly on the pasture and they

are weatherproofed. The stud horses are kept in stables, constructed many

years ago. Here is used the standard technology of growing up the

youngsters. Usually they start to gentle the youngsters when they reach 1

year.

The collective of Lavrovo stud farm regularly achieves the high

fetation of mares and high youngsters output.

Experienced jockeys on 6 hippodromes of the country test the

trotters from Lavrovo: in Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Tallinn, Tambov.

The State Stables

Many sources of dynamic development of the city went back to the

first half of the 19th century. Among them was the process of formation of

the state stables. It was connected to the resolving of certain military

strategic problems: the Russian army needed strong and hardy horses.

Therefore the problem of the improvement of mass horse-breeding remained

urgent for many decades.

The attempts on improvement of horses quality were undertaken in

Russia in 1789-1799, then appeared the first state stables. In 1836,

according to the decree of Nikolai I, they returned to these problems

again.

In Tambov the state stable appeared in 1837 in northwest suburb

of the city.

The ensemble from two stone buildings and hospital for the

animals at the center of internal courtyard was erected in1848.

Historically, trotters were placed in the white building of the stables and

heavyweights - in the round one.

The gate, decorated with a head of a horse connected the foreside

buildings. In ancient times the horse head was a symbol of power for the

Scythians, and for our recent ancestors it was a symbol of happiness.

The street along the stable buildings with the lapse of time got

the name Konyushennaya. The building of the Tambov State stable is not only

the architectural monument of the first half of 19th century, but also the

monument of horse-breeding history of Russia.

In the system of stud farms the most important part belonged to

the hippodromes. The tests on the hippodrome were obligatory for the

selection of saddle-horses and trotters. By their results was performed the

animals selection for breeding: on friskiness, endurance and sport

qualities of horses. The Tambov hippodrome was one of oldest; it followed

the stables and appeared in a valley of Studenets in 1837. In 1876 the

racing hippodrome was reconstructed according to the needs of time.

The construction of stables and hippodrome made active local fans

of horse sport and had formed the basis for the stud farms association.

Since 1845 the association had been renting the ground floor of

Public library (Sovietskaya 114), where the methods of improvement of the

horse-breeding were discussed as one of the important branches of the

region economy.

The assemblies nominated prizes for trotters and racehorses. In

the competitions participated not only the horses of landowners, but also

the horses from farms. The data on the most interesting prize-winners were

given in The stud farm book of Russian trotters , issued in St.-

Petersburg in 1892.

The competitions and races were usually organized after Tambov

horse fairs. They were conducted in June and October of each year on the

fairground to the north of the stables.

On Tambov fair they drove the horses from herds by the special

cattle roads; and the dealers bought animals here and sent them in Moscow

and St. Petersburg.

In the middle of 19th century up to 300 horses of different

breeds from trotters to draught horses were driven to the fair from the

stud farms of the region. The prices differed from 30 to 800 rubles

depending on the genuineness. Full information about the fairs was

published in the special editions like The Horse Fairs in Russia.

Annually in Tambov took place the exhibitions of farm horses for

agricultural needs. The best samples were awarded with the appropriate

premiums.

The wars of last and new centuries have tragically reduced the

number of wonderful animals, bred in the region by the efforts of many

generations. The working conditions of Tambov State stables were also

complicated. Nevertheless, some traditions of Russian horse-breeding were

saved there.

The history of the soviet period is marked with new prizewinners

and famous Russian troika.

Many years the school of horse sports was working in the stables,

where 12-year's old boys and girls were taught the bases of equitation and

mainly the love to this wonderful animals.

In the soviet period the state stable was often visited by one of

the first marshals of The Union S.M. Budenniy. The Tambov hippodrome was

named after him.

Today the live stock of the horses in Tambov region is decreased

dramatically and this process continues. The annual reduction is 600-800

heads.

The bibliography:

. :

// . - 1992. - 7 . - . 3.

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. // . - 1984. -

2. - . 12-15.

., ., . - 150

// . - 1965. - 3. - . 15-20.

. (

) // . - 1960. -

9. - . 5-8.

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